Retinopathy of Prematurity
What is retinopathy of prematurity?
Retinopathy of prematurity is a disease of the retinal blood vessels that can occur
in extremely premature infants. The retina is the inner lining of the eye that consists
of specialized nerve cells necessary for sight. Blood vessels in the retina develop
first from the optic nerve area at the very back of the eye, with growth of blood
vessels within the retina toward the front of the eye. The normal process of retinal
blood vessel growth is stopped in premature infants, leading to the formation of
abnormal blood vessels and scar tissue.
What causes retinopathy of prematurity?
Researchers have discovered several risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity.
One of the most significant risk factors is prematurity (born before 34 weeks of
pregnancy). Another risk factor is low birth weight (less than 1500 grams or approximately
3 pounds). In the past, extremely high levels of oxygen therapy necessary for the
survival of premature infants were thought to contribute to retinopathy of prematurity.
However, with the precision of modern oxygen monitoring techniques now available,
it is unlikely that excess oxygen causes this disease. Retinopathy of prematurity
also has been reported in infants who receive no supplemental oxygen. In experiments,
retinopathy of prematurity has been produced in animals by conditions simulating
Who gets retinopathy of prematurity?
Infants weighing less than 1250 grams have an approximately 50% chance of developing
some retinopathy of prematurity. As birth weight decreases, the likelihood of retinopathy
of prematurity increases. More than 90% of infants weighing less than 750 grams
develop retinopathy of prematurity. The same trend holds true in relation to when
an infant is born. Approximately 30% of infants after 32 weeks of pregnancy develop
retinopathy of prematurity, and greater than 80% of infants less than 28 weeks of
pregnancy develop retinopathy of prematurity.
How does it cause disease?
The growth of normal retinal blood vessels may be stopped, with normal vessels only
growing to the middle of the retina. Beyond this, the retina has no blood vessels.
Most likely, a chemical signal is then sent out that stimulates the remaining retina
to grow new blood vessels. The new blood vessels are abnormal and frail, and they
can bleed and scar easily. If enough of this scar tissue is present, it can pull
on the retinal tissue, causing a traction retinal detachment. If the situation progresses
further, a total retinal detachment can occur, leading to vision loss and, possibly,
loss of the eye.
An ophthalmologist experienced in the examination for this condition can diagnose
retinopathy of prematurity. A set of dilating drops is placed in each eye to dilate
the pupil. The infant is examined with an instrument to keep the eyelids open (called
a lid speculum), and the retina is inspected with an ophthalmoscope. The eyeball
may be manipulated to complete the examination.
The area (zone) of retinal involvement and the severity (stage) of the disease define
retinopathy of prematurity.
Zone I is a circular area, roughly equivalent to the optic nerve and macular area
in the center of the retina. Zone II is a larger circle surrounding this area, roughly
equivalent to the middle of the retina. Zone III is the remaining anterior (or front)
retina and represents an area of near maturity of the retinal vessels. Severe retinopathy
of premature occurs most often in Zones I and II.
Stage I is defined as a line found at the border of the normal retina and the retina
without blood vessels. Stage II is defined as a thickening of the line to form what
is called a ridge. These stages probably represent growth of immature retinal cells.
Stage III involves growth of new abnormal blood vessels, both on the ridge and elevated
above the ridge into the vitreous (clear, gelatinous material between the retina
and the lens) area. When Stage III blood vessel growth reaches a certain level,
it is best treated by laser. Stage IV involves traction and detachment of the retina.
This stage is divided into Stage IV-A, or detachment not involving the macula (area
near the center of the retina where vision is most clear), and Stage IV-B, or detachment
involving the macular or central retina. Stage V is defined as a total tractional
retinal detachment for which there is often no effective treatment.
Plus disease is defined by abnormal vessels that are very tortuous, along
with the findings listed above, usually indicating a situation that may require
immediate treatment. Rush disease indicates unusually fast progression (1-
to 2-week period) from no retinopathy of prematurity to disease that requires treatment.
Most retinopathy of prematurity does not require treatment and resolves on its own.
The risk of developing disease that requires treatment is highly related to low
birth weight and prematurity. In infants weighing less than 750 grams (approximately
1 1/2 pounds), 15% to 20% of infants developing any retinopathy of prematurity do
go on to disease that requires treatment. For infants weighing greater than 1250
grams (approximately 2 3/4 pounds), only 2% of infants developing retinopathy of
prematurity go on to disease needing treatment. Some retinopathy of prematurity
that develops in the remainder of the infants ultimately resolves on its own.
Earlier studies found a beneficial effect of cryotherapy (freezing treatment) to
the peripheral areas of the retina (areas without blood vessels) in healing retinopathy
of prematurity. Now, cryotherapy has been replaced largely by laser treatment. In
both treatments, the peripheral areas of the retina are destroyed, leading to a
decreased demand for the growth of new blood vessels. The abnormal new blood vessels
then are seen to shrink away, leaving no further effect on the retina.
The ophthalmologist delivers the laser treatment through the dilated pupil with
an indirect ophthalmoscope system (similar to the setup used for examination). The
treatment generally takes 30-45 minutes per eye, and it often is performed in the
neonatal intensive care setting. Intravenous (IV) sedation and pain relief commonly
are used, and a breathing tube sometimes is necessary.
The infant usually is reexamined at 2-4 weeks. Re-treatments of problem areas occasionally
are necessary. Progression of severe retinopathy of prematurity can occur despite
successful cryotherapy or laser treatment. A small percentage of eyes continue on
to traction retinal detachment despite adequate treatment.
What are the complications?
Continued retinopathy of prematurity with traction retinal detachment and loss of
vision is the final outcome in some cases, although this risk is reduced greatly
with well-timed treatment. Even if retinopathy of prematurity resolves on its own
or if treatment is required, certain outcomes are common, including nearsightedness
(difficulty seeing things far away). Other possible complications include amblyopia
(weakened vision in one eye) or strabismus (misalignment of the eyes) with an eye
deviating in (esotropia) or out (exotropia) when compared to the other eye. A pediatric
ophthalmologist can address all these conditions in the follow-up stage.
Complications of laser treatment or cryotherapy include corneal burns or swelling
(edema), lens burns or cataract formation, and vitreous hemorrhage or bleeding into
the center cavity of the eye. As mentioned above, retinal traction and detachment
can occur despite treatment.
How do you prevent it?
No proven treatment exists to prevent the occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity
in infants who are at an increased risk. Careful monitoring of oxygenation status
and examination of high-risk infants at 6 weeks after birth effectively identifies
cases of retinopathy of prematurity that may need additional treatment. No correlation
exists between lighting conditions in the nursery and the development of retinopathy
What research is being done?
The effect of supplemental oxygen on infants with Stage III is being studied in
the STOP-ROP (Supplemental Therapeutic Oxygen for Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity)
trial. The initial results from this study indicate no firm beneficial effect of
increasing oxygenation in Stage III of this condition. The multicenter CRYO-ROP
(Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity) study continues to observe infants
in a phase III long-term follow-up study.
Links to other information
The American Academy of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Web site has additional
information on retinopathy of prematurity at
Informational brochures are available from The American Academy of Ophthalmology
Web site at http://www.eyenet.org.
The Committee Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity. An international classification
of retinopathy of prematurity. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984 Aug;102(8):1130-1134.
The International Committee for the Classification of the Late Stages of Retinopathy
of Prematurity. An international classification of retinopathy of prematurity. II.
The classification of retinal detachment. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987 Jul;105(7):906-912.
Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group. Multicenter trial
of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity. Preliminary results. Arch Ophthalmol.
Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group. Multicenter trial
of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity. 3 ï¿½-year outcome-structure and function.
Arch Ophthalmol. 1993 Mar;111(3):339-344.
About the Author
David W. Johnson, MD, is an ophthalmologist in private practice specializing in
vitreoretinal surgery. He currently holds a teaching appointment as Assistant Clinical
Professor in the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Colorado Health
Sciences Center in Denver. Dr. Johnson actively participates in the diagnosis and
treatment of retinopathy of prematurity at several Denver area hospitals.
Copyright 2012 David W. Johnson, M.D., All Rights Reserved